How to Sue An Insurance Company In Small Claims Court

Disputes with insurance companies can be frustrating, especially when a claim is denied.

While complex legal battles might come to mind, small claims court offers an alternative for resolving certain insurance disagreements.

This guide explores the reasons for suing an insurance company in small claims court, outlines the process, and weighs the pros and cons to help you decide if this route is right for you.

How to Sue An Insurance Company In Small Claims Court

How to Sue An Insurance Company In Small Claims Court

Suing your insurance company in small claims court can be a viable option for resolving specific claim disputes.

By carefully considering the factors involved, gathering strong evidence, and understanding the process, you can increase your chances of a successful outcome.

Reasons to Sue an Insurance Company in Small Claims Court

Several scenarios can lead to suing your insurance company in small claims court. Here are some common reasons:

  • Denied Claim: This is the most frequent reason. You believe your claim falls under your policy’s coverage, but the insurer disagrees.
  • Underpayment: The insurance company offers a settlement you consider significantly lower than the actual loss.
  • Unreasonable Delays: The insurer takes an excessive amount of time to process or settle your claim.

Is a small claims court right for you?

A small claims court has limitations. Here are some key factors to consider:

  • Amount in Dispute: Each state has a dollar limit for small claims court, typically ranging from $3,000 to $15,000. If your claim exceeds this limit, you’ll need to consider alternative avenues.
  • Policy Complexity: While you can represent yourself, complex insurance policies or intricate legal issues might be better suited for an attorney.
  • Evidence Strength: The success of your case hinges on the strength of your evidence. Gather documentation like police reports, repair estimates, medical bills, and relevant policy excerpts.

Step-by-Step Guide to Suing Your Insurance Company in Small Claims Court

  1. Gather Documentation: Compile all relevant documents related to your claim, including the insurance policy, denial letter, communication records with the insurer, and proof of loss.
  2. Understand Small Claims Procedures: Research your state’s small claims court procedures. This includes filing fees, timelines, and evidence presentation rules. Many courts offer informational brochures or online resources.
  3. File Your Complaint: Obtain the appropriate small claims court forms, typically available at the courthouse or online. Fill out the complaint form outlining the case details, the amount you’re seeking, and a brief statement of facts.
  4. Serve the Insurance Company: Once your complaint is filed, the court will provide instructions on serving the insurance company with the lawsuit documents. This typically involves certified mail or having a process server deliver the paperwork.
  5. Prepare for Your Hearing: Organize your evidence and prepare your arguments. Consider practicing your presentation beforehand. Small claims court is often informal, but clear and concise communication is crucial.
  6. Attend the Hearing: Dress professionally and arrive early. The judge will hear both sides of the case and may ask questions. Present your evidence confidently and explain why you believe the insurance company should cover your claim.
  7. The Court’s Decision: The judge will issue a ruling, which may be in your favor, the insurance company’s favor, or a partial judgment.
  8. Collecting the Judgment: If the court rules in your favor, the insurance company is legally obligated to pay the awarded amount. If they fail to comply, you may need to take further legal action to collect the judgment.

Pros and Cons of Suing in Small Claims Court


  • Cost-Effective: Small claims court filing fees are significantly lower than traditional lawsuits. You can often represent yourself, avoiding attorney fees.
  • Time Efficiency: Small claims cases are generally resolved quicker than traditional lawsuits due to simplified procedures.
  • Empowerment: Representing yourself allows you to control the narrative and advocate directly for your rights.


  • Burden of Proof: The responsibility lies with you to present convincing evidence and build a strong case.
  • Limited Scope: Small claims courts have limitations on recoverable damages. Complex legal issues might be beyond their jurisdiction.
  • Emotional Toll: Litigation can be stressful, and representing yourself adds an extra layer of pressure.

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